Peloponnese, Peza and Merabello Crete between 2012 to 2014. For determination of the active
substance glyphosate andAMPA, the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) technique
was used. The chromatographically determined residue levels in soil were compared to the Predicted
Environmental Concentrations (PECs).
Groundwater samples
A total of 18 samples were sampled for residue analysis from Peza, while a further 11 samples were
examined for the presence of the active substance glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA. Residues
of pesticides were detected in one sample (year 2011) at levels below the limit set by the European
Union for Drinking Water. The use of a fungicide substance found in water is not permitted and its
presence is probably related to applications in other cultivated crops of this region. In the last year of
sampling, no substance was detected. No pesticides residues were detected from Merambello in any
of the 29 analysed samples. A total of 22 groundwater samples were analysed from Chora Trifylias.
Four herbicidal substances (one fungicide and one insecticide) were identified in the samples, but
at concentrations below the established regulatory limits. With the exception of the insecticide, the
identified active substances are not associated with the use of pesticides in olive cultivation.
Soil samples: A total of 75 soil samples were analysed to determine the residue levels of the
herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA. The values obtained from the analysis of the samples
were compared to the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) at the time of sampling. The
levels of AMPA residues were well below the predicted environmental concentrations of soil. A total of
4 soil samples were analysed in 2014 in Merambello, to determine the level of residues of the herbicide
glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA. All 4 samples were collected in parcels embedded in Organic
farming. As expected, substances glyphosate and AMPA were not detected in any of the samples. A
total of 96 soil samples were collected and analysed from Chora Trifilias. The values obtained from the
analysis of the samples were compared to the predicted values at the time of sampling. AMPA residues
exceeded the Predicted Environmental Concentrations of soil in specific cases. The concentrations
of AMPA in soil samples cannot be exclusively associated with improper use of pesticides. Further
investigation and analysis is required.
Υπέρβαση ορίων
Ανίχνευση υπολειµµάτων εντός των ορίων
Χωρίς υπολείµµατα
Results of analyses of water samples in
Peza Crete, Merambello Crete and Chora
Sampling and physic-chemical definitions
In the context of the project, it was carried out sampling of soils and irrigation waters that were
subsequently analyzed at the accredited laboratory of Land Reclamation Institute of Hellenic
Agricultural Organization “Demeter”. Accordingly, the resultswere assessed on the basis of their overall
environmental status that focused on their suitability for irrigation (for waters) and the nutritional
conditions (for soils) of the selected 200 olive groves to each study area (Peza, Merambello, Nileas).
Totally were collected 93 samples of irrigation waters and performed 3.058 definitions of 21
parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, NO3, NH4, HCO3, Cl, SO4, P, Ca, Mg, Na, K, B, Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd,
Pb, SAR). In respect to soils, totally were collected 1.261 samples and performed 35.200 definitions of
21 parameters (soil texture, CEC, pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, organic matter, equivalent
CaCO3, ESP, SAR, Na, K, Ca, Mg ,NO3-N, P-Olsen, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, total Ν-Kjeldahl).
Assessment of irrigation water suitability and nutritional and physic-
chemical status of olive grove’s soils
The analytical results of soils and irrigationwater samples led to their assessment, either individually or
combinational (soil of irrigated field– irrigationwater). The results highlighted the overall environmental
quality status of agricultural plots, as well as the potential threats related to the qualitative conditions
of natural resources (soil and irrigationwater). The results were processed and visualized to informative
tables and figures, similar to figure 1.
Additionally, it was performed detailed assessment for each sample and each area as a whole
(Nileas, Merambello, Peza) according to their environmental characteristics related with agricultural
activities (e.g. suitability of soils and irrigation water). Based on these assessments, were addressed
detailed guidelines for the optimization of physicochemical and nutritional conditions of olive groves
with the aid of rational fertilization, combined amendment actions (e.g. use of organic material, use
of alkaline or acid fertilizers, reduction of mechanical processes etc) and use of irrigation water under
specific conditions, that were communicated to the local agronomists and producers through special
technical notes.
Further processing of physicochemical definitions included the compilation of thematic maps that
displayed the results. Specifically, totally 90 maps were created that displayed specific environmental
parameters of soil and irrigation water, as well as 12maps depicting general physiographical conditions
and attributes (e.g. sampling points, geology, hydrolithology etc).
Training of local agronomists and field works
The local agronomists were trained systematically for the successful application of project. In that
frame, there were performed several on site visits to the study areas, with the presence of local
producers, followed by presentations for the project actions. Trainings initially were of general scope
(e.g. sampling processes) but progressively where specialized in focal points, like the methodology for
the collection of information for the IAP method. Beyond these, there were performed on site visits of
1,2-3,4-5,6-7 10-11,12-13,14-15,16
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